Sir Francis Drake (1540-1596)

“The World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake.”

The First New England
“Nova Albion”

This unprecedented Californian “first” is vividly described in The World 
Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake, by his chaplain, Francis Fletcher. Published in London in 1628, the fascinating story of Drake’s arrival at San Francisco Bay on June 17, 1579; his friendly encounter with the Indians; their great Hioh, or King freely bestowing upon him the full title and ownership of California; and Drake’s setting up “a brasse plate” claiming the land for Queen Elizabeth I, begins thus:

Ever since Almighty God commanded Adam to subdue the earth,
there have not wanted, in all ages, some heroical spirits, which in
obedience to that high mandate, either from manifest reason alluring them,
or by secret instinct enforcing them thereunto, have expended their wealth,
employed their times, and adventured their persons, to find out the true
circuit thereof.

Of these, some have endeavoured to effect this their purpose, by
conclusion and consequence, drawn from the proportion of higher circles,
to this nethermost globe, being the center of the rest. Others, not content
with school points, and such demonstrations (for that a small error in the
beginning, grows in the progress to a great inconvenience) have added
thereunto their own history and experience. All of them in reason have
deserved great commendation of their own ages, and purchased a just
renown with all posterity. For if a surveyor of some few Lordships,
whereof the bounds and limits were before known, worthily deserve his
reward, not only for his travel, but for his skill also, in measuring the
whole and every part thereof: how much more, above comparison are
their famous travels by all means possible to be eternalized, who have
bestowed their studies and endeavor, to survey and measure this globe
almost unmeasurable? Neither is here that difference to be objected,
which of private possessions is of value: whose land survey you?
Foreasmuch as the main ocean by right is the Lord’s alone, and by
nature left free, for all men to deal withal, as very sufficient for all men’s
use, and large enough for all men’s industry. And therefore that valiant
enterprise, accompanied with happy success, which that right rare and
thrice worthy Captain Francis Drake achieved, in first turning up a
furrow about the whole world, does not only over-match the ancient
Argonautes, but also outreaches in many respects, that noble mariner,
Magellanus, and by far surpasses his crowned victory. But hereof let
posterity judge.

Francis Drake’s Encounter with the Indians –
His worship of Almighty God on the Shore

Sir Francis Drake’s encounter with the Indians and his worship of Almighty God on the shores of what is now San Francisco, continues in this unique and exciting vein:

…Our General with his company, in the presence of those strangers,
fell to prayer: and by signs in lifting up our eyes and hands to heaven,
signified unto them, that God whom we did serve, and whom they ought
to worship, was above: beseeching God if it were His good pleasure, to
open by some means their blinded eyes; that they might in due time be
called to the 
knowledge of Him, the true and everliving God, and of
Jesus Christ,
whom He hath sent, the salvation of the gentiles. In the
time of which prayers, singing of Psalms, and reading of certain chapters
in the Bible, they sat very attentively, and observing the end at every
pause, with one voice still cried – Oh, greatly rejoicing in our exercises.
Yea, they took such pleasure in our singing of Psalms, that whensoever
they resorted to us, their first request was commonly this, “Gnaah,” by
which they intreated that we would sing.

…they made signs to our General to have him sit down; unto whom
both the king and divers others made several orations…that he would take
the Province
and kingdom into his hand, and become the king and
patron: making signs that they would resign unto him their right and
title in the whole land,
and become vassals in themselves and their
posterities:..

These things being so freely offered, our General thought not meet to
reject or refuse the same: both for that he would not give them any cause
of mistrust, or disliking of, him (that being the only place, wherein at this
present, we were of necessity enforced to seek relief of many things), and
chiefly, for that he knew not to what good end God has brought this to
pass
, or what honour and profit it might bring to our country in time to
come…

This country our General named ALBION, and that for two causes: the
one in respect of the white banks and cliffs which lie toward the sea: the
other, that it might have some affinity, even in name only, with our own
country, which was sometime so called.

Before we went from thence, our General caused to be set up, a
monument of our being there; as also of her majesties and successors right
and title to that kingdome, namely, a plate of brasse, fast nailed to a great
and firme post; whereon is engraven her graces name, and the day and
yeare of our arrival there, and of the free giving up, of the Province and
kingdome, both by the king and people, into her majesties hands: together
with her highnesse picture, and armes in a piece of sixpence current
English monie, shewing itselfe by a hole made of purpose through the
plate: 
underneath was likewise engraven the name of our Generall, etc.

Drake's Plate of Brass Discovered - 1937

A 1937 California Historical Society publication entitled, Drake’s Plate of Brass–Evidence of his visit to California in 1579, informs readers of the amazing discovery of Francis Drake’s original brass plate, 357 years later!

On April 6, 1937, Herbert E. Bolton, Professor of American History and Director of the Rare Book and Manuscript – Bancroft Library of the University of 
California, delivered a riveting speech before the California Historical Society. This occurred at the Sir Francis Drake Hotel in San Francisco, on the occasion 
announcing the Drake Plate discovery. It is hereunder excerpted:

One of the world’s long-lost historical treasures apparently has been
found! Three hundred and fifty-seven years ago, Francis Drake, on the
Golden Hinde made his famous voyage round the world, the first
accomplished by any Englishman. On June 17, 1579, while on the way to
the Orient, he anchored in a “conuenient and fit harborough “on the
California coast and there reconditioned his ship. Before he left he nailed
to a “firme post” a brass plate bearing an inscription. It was a bold
notice to all the world that for Queen Elizabeth of England, he had taken
possession of the country, which he called New Albion. He gave it this
name, because the white cliffs along the coast reminded him of the chalk
cliffs of England, from which the Romans gave the name of Albion to that
island.

These facts are recorded in the well-known narratives of Drake’s
voyage. But from that day to this – a period of more than three and one-half centuries – the plate has not been seen by any white man, so far as
records show. Nor has anybody known the exact words with which Drake
issued his challenge to the world. But the plate, it seems, has been found.
England can now quote the very phrases with which her most celebrated
navigator proclaimed Elizabeth’s title to California. The relic tallies in a
most astonishing way with the description in the narrative by Chaplain
Francis Fletcher, who was with Drake, who doubtless saw the plate, and
who witnessed its nailing to the “firme post,” or to the “faire great poste,”
as it was called. The relic is of solid brass, about five inches wide and
eight inches long, and an eighth of an inch thick. It was picked up by
Beryle Shinn in the summer of 1936 in ­Marin County not far from San
Rafael. After keeping it some six months without an inkling of its unique
character, he brought it to me early in February, 1937, and I told him what
I thought it was…The sixpence was not found with the plate and is still
missing. (Perhaps I ought to say that Mr. Shinn was not one of my students
and had little or no knowledge of the Drake voyage until he talked
with me). The authenticity of the tablet seems to me beyond all reasonable
doubt. On this assumption, its discovery is one of the most sensational in
all California history.

With a view to announcing the event through the appropriate channel,
and of obtaining the financial assistance necessary to acquire the precious
relic for the University of California, I turned to Allen L. Chickering,
President of the California Historical Society, who in times past has
generously responded to more than one similar appeal. With his
accustomed energy and enthusiasm in the cause of California history, he
raised the necessary funds, from the donors whose names are elsewhere
given, joined me in negotiations with Mr. Shinn, and acquired the relic. In
fairness to Mr. Shinn, it should be said that, as soon as he learned of its
significance, his chief interest in the plate was to have it preserved for the
public, and he never asked, nor would he discuss a price for it. (This fact
has, of course, an important bearing on the question of the genuineness of
the plate). The sum paid was suggested by Mr. Chickering, and was
regarded by him and his associates as merely a suitable reward for
generous cooperation in releasing the plate in order that it might go to the
University…

It is only through the accident that Mr. Shinn came to me that I have
this honor. My aim in this brief sketch is simply to recall the
circumstances under which Drake took possession of New Albion, and to
present the convincing evidence of the genuineness of the plate which has
been discovered…

In the fall of 1577 he sailed from England with five ships bound for
the Orient. Drake’s plan was to continue across the Pacific to the
Moluccas, but it was now too late to catch the favorable winds…He could
not risk the vessel so heavily laden for so long a voyage at the wrong
season of the year. He dared not return through the Strait of Magellan, for
the Spaniards would be sure to lie in wait for him there…When the proper
time arrived, he coasted south, looking for a harbor in which to
recondition the Golden Hinde before striking across the Pacific on the
long, hard voyage.

On the way he anchored in an unsatisfactory inlet…Thence he
continued down the coast and in “38 deg. 30. min….fell with a conuenient
and fit harborough, and June 17. came to anchor therein,” remaining till
July 23. Drake’s dates of course were Old Style…

The discovery of the “plate of brasse” lends fresh interest to the
scene enacted that summer of 1579 on the California coast…

The Indians brought to the Commander presents “in such sort, as if
they had appeared before a god indeed.” The women were so worshipful
that when they came to camp and beheld the armor-covered, bearded and
fair-haired visitors, they “used unnatural 
violence against themselves,
crying and shrieking piteously, tearing their flesh with their nailes from
their cheeks, in a monstrous manner, the blood streaming downe along
their brests; besides despoiling the upper parts of their bodies, of those
single coverings they formerly had, and holding their hands above their
heads, that they might not rescue their brests from harme, they would with
furie cast themselves upon the ground,” dashing their naked bodies upon
“hard stones, knobbly hillocks, stocks of wood, and pricking bushes.”

…On June 26 the great Hioh himself appeared on the hilltop, “a man
of goodly stature and comely personage, attended with his guard, of about
100. tall and warlike men…In the forefront came a man of large body and
goodly aspect, bearing the septre or royall mace…Whereupon hanged two
crownes…with three chaines of a marvelous length…The crownes were
made of knitworke, wrought upon most curiously with feathers of divers
colours, very 
artificially placed, and of a formall fashion.” The chains
were equally marvelous. They appeared to be “of a bony substance: every
linke or part thereof being very little, thinne, most finely 
burnished, with a
hole pierced through the middest. The number of linkes going to make
one chaine,” says Fletcher, “is in a manner infinite.”

…With impassioned eloquence and exquisite ceremonial, we are told,
the Hioh and his retainers begged the General to accept the country and
become its ruler. The words of Chaplain Fletcher here are pertinent to the
sequel: “After that they had satisfied or rather tired themselves in this
manner, says Fletcher, “they made signes to our Generall to have him sit
down; unto whom both the king and divers others made several orations,
or indeed, if wee had understood them, supplications, that hee would take
the Province and kingdome into his hand
, and become their king and
patron: making signes that they would resigne unto him their right and
title to the whole land
, and become vassals in themselves and their
posterities.” And, “that they might make us indeed believe that it was
their true meaning and intent, the king himselfe, with all the rest, with one
consent and with great reverence, joyfully singing a song, set the crowne
upon his head; inriched his necke with all their chaines; and…honoured
him by the name of Hyoh: Adding thereunto (as it might seeme) a song
and a dance of triumph; because they were not onely visited of the gods
(for so they still judged us to be), but the great and chiefe god was now
become their god, their king and patron, and themselves were become the
onely happie and blessed people in all the world.”

…And so, says the Chaplain, “These things” – California and the
Crown – “being so freely offered, our Generall thought not meet to reject
or refuse the same: both for that he would not give them any cause of
mistrust, or disliking of him (that being the onely place, wherein at this
present, we were of necessitie inforced to seeke reliefe of many things)
and chiefely, for that he knew not to what good end had brought this to
passe, or what honour and profit it might bring to our countrie in time to
come. Wherefore, in the name and to the use of her most excellent
majesty, he tooke the sceptre, crowne and dignity, of the sayd countrie into
his hand; wishing nothing more, than that it had layen so fitly for her
majesty to enjoy, as it was now her proper owne, and that the riches and
treasures thereof…might with as great conveniency be transported to the
enriching of the kingdome here at home, (Fletcher was writing in England)
as it is in plenty to be attained there: and especially, that so tractable and
loving a people, as they showed themselves to be, might have meanes to
have manifested their most willing obedience the more unto her, and by
her meanes, as a mother and nurse of the Church of Christ, might by the
preaching of the Gospell, be brought to the right knowledge and
obedience of the true ­and everliving God.”

Francis Drake crowned
great Hioh of California

Thus was Drake crowned great Hioh of California. He called the country Nova Albion, or New Albion, “and that for two causes,” says the Chaplain, “the one in respect of the white bancks and cliffs, which lie toward the sea: the other, that it might have some affinities, even in name also, with our owne country, which was sometime so called.”

As has been stated above, Fletcher is our chief source of 
information for details regarding events at the “conuenient and fit harborough.”

…No picture of the plate is known to exist. Only one recourse remained – to find the plate. Here it is! Recovered at last after a lapse of 357 years! Behold, Drake’s plate – the plate of brasse! California’s choicest archaeological treasure! And here is what the inscription says:

BEE IT KNOWNE VNTO ALL MEN BY THESE
PRESENTS
IVNE 17 1579

BY THE GRACE OF GOD AND IN THE NAME OF HERR
MAIESTY QUEEN ELIZABETH OF ENGLAND AND HERR
SVCCESSORS FOREVER I TAKE POSSESSION OF THIS
KINGDOME WHOSE KING AND PEOPLE FREELY RESIGNE
THEIR RIGHT AND TITLE IN THE WHOLE LAND VNTO HERR
MAIESTIES KEEPEING NOW NAMED BY ME AN TO BEE
KNOWNE VNTO ALL MEN AS NOVA ALBION

FRANCIS DRAKE
(signed) Hole for
silver
sixpence

So the plate, assuming its authenticity, completely vindicates Chaplain Fletcher. The phraseology of the inscription in nearly every particular is that of The World Encompassed, our fullest version of Fletcher’s account.

1.

 The inscription claims Nova Albion for the Virgin Queen and her successors, just as the Chaplain says.

2.

 The plate is of brass, just as the Chaplain says.

3.

 Not the “province and people” but the “province and kingdome” and the “right and title in the whole land” were given up, just as the Chaplain says.

4.

 They were granted not by a nameless nobody, but by “king and people” the great Hioh and his subjects, just 
as the Chaplain says.

5.

 Finally, there is a hole through the plate “made of 
purpose” to hold the sixpence, just as the Chaplain says.

Mr. Chickering obtained a silver sixpence bearing Queen Elizabeth’s picture and it is a perfect fit. From that jagged window in the plate, after Drake departed, Queen Elizabeth looked majestically into the faces of the great Hioh and his people, and out upon fair California…Between the relic and the eye-witness records there is a spectacular and convincing harmony which no fraud would be likely to attain…

To learn more, click here. (California book)

_________________

Bibliography:

Bancroft Library, Rare Book Collection. University of California, Berkley, California.

 

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